Should Dogs Be Indoors or Outdoors
Dogs are not all the same nor are all situations the same. What's the best provision for your dog?
This is really an impossible thing to answer as to just indoor/outdoor as there is much more to consider!
Because of that whichever 'side' is chosen is not 100%. To say they're unsocialized and uncared for if outside is not always true - many working dogs get plenty of attention and care but do not live in the house. Equally there are those who are in the house that - really - don't get the time and attention solely from being inside.
Additionally the climate and breed factor in. Is the dog a working dog? If so then it make sense to have him where the job is! A seizure alert dog isn't going to do any good if he's not where the owner is! Equally, a livestock guardian dog cannot protect the herd if he's inside sprawled on the floor and the goats or sheep are outside being stalked by predators.
Dogs can do a great many things for us and with us. I've had dogs that given a chance with an open back door into a fenced yard will be outside on their own. In weather extremes it depends even larger on the breed. While an Australian Shepherd might lounge in the shade on a hot day, a pug or bulldog can have respiratory issues in the heat.
Equally, cold weather affects a Chihuahua much differently than a Pyrenees that were DEVELOPED for the cold weather and can stand cold much more than heat.
Some years ago due to roaming dogs killing livestock I put an Anatolian Shepherd in the pen with the milking does. She had a 4X8 shed to go into, she had water and was fed regularly (free choice was not an option due to her job). It was a snowy northern Arizona day and she curled up in the hay and let it snow. She did not want in the shed as the guarding instinct is to protect the flock.
Temperature, breed and the job are major factors. There are other reasons. For example one of the "indoor/outdoor" dogs has a double coat and sheds profusely twice per year. Grooming does not get it all off as it's not all released at the same time. Clipping would only leave smaller hairs all over.
During those times he's outside most of the time...with access to a covered back porch as well as a dome home. He's happy either way, with daily attention and is secure enough to know that we're inside and he's 'in charge' of the back yard.
The part of the country factors in the weather too. With consideration to these things there really is not a hard line way to answer. Should a ShihTzu be outside in Minnesota in the winter time all day or a Husky outside during a summer day in southern Arizona? These weather extremes combined with their breed could be cruel decisions depending on provisions. On the other hand, a Kuvasz working in Kansas or a Chihuahua service dog generates much different answers!
A miniature Dachshund puppy outside on a 17 degree night is in danger and unfortunately more than one owner has had dogs come up missing as a result. A heavy coated working dog with shelter can handle and even enjoy cold weather, providing they have a comfortable area to get out of it if they choose.
Many dogs do not get enough exercise also. Training and having the ability to move can be a positive thing provided that they are safe there.
Each individual must decide for themselves, based on location, breed and use of the dog what the answer is. It's part of being a responsible owner and not up for others to dictate because of disagreeing.